Development History of Stainless Steel in the world
Stainless steel is generally a general term for stainless steel and acid resistant steel. Stainless steel refers to steel that is resistant to corrosion by weak media such as atmosphere, Steam, and water, while acid-resistant steel refers to steel that is resistant to corrosion by chemically impregnated media such as acid, alkali, and salt. Stainless steel has been around for more than 90 years since the beginning of this century. The invention of stainless steel is a major achievement in the history of world metallurgy. At the beginning of the 20th century, L.B. Guillet was in France from 1904 to 1906 and A.M. Portwin from 1909 to 1911; W. Giesen discovered the corrosion resistance of the Fe-Cr and Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in the United Kingdom from 1907 to 1909. Mengnaerci proposed many views on the theory of rust and passivation in Germany from 1908 to 1911. The inventors of industrial stainless steel are: Bulierli developed Martensite stainless steel containing Cr 12 % -13 % in the United Kingdom from 1912 to 1913;
In 1911-1914, C. Dansizen developed iron stainless steel containing Cr 14 % -16 % and C 0.07 % -0.15 % in the United States; E. Maurer and B. Strauss developed C in Germany from 1912 to 1914. In 1929, Strauss(B. Strauss) obtained a patent for low-carbon 18-8(Cr-18 %, Ni-8 %) stainless steel. In order to solve the sensitive intercrystalline corrosion of the 18-8 steel, Huodelute of Germany invented the 18-8 stainless steel containing Ti in 1931(equivalent to the current 1Cr18Ni9Ti or AISI 321). Almost at the same time, when the Austenitic stainless steel containing ferrite was found in the Unieux laboratory in France, the intercrystalline corrosion performance of the steel was significantly improved, and gamma + α dual-phase stainless steel was developed.
In 1946, Shimisiaitaer of the United States developed Martensite precipitated hardened stainless steel 17-4PH; Subsequently, semi-austenitic precipitated hardened stainless steel 17-7PH and PH 15-7Mo, which had high strength and cold processing, were introduced one after another. At least, the main steel types in the stainless steel family, namely martensite, ferrite, austenite, α + γ diphase and precipitation hardening, are basically complete and continue to this day. Of course, in the 40-50s, the sections Ni's Cr-Mn-N and Cr-Mn-Ni-N stainless steel, ultra-low carbon(C ≤ 0.03 %) austenitic stainless steel;
In the 1960s, the emergence of high purity ferrite stainless steel and martensite aging stainless steel with γ: α close to 1 α + γ double phase stainless steel and C++ ≤ 150ppm, although also a major development in the stainless steel field, but, These new steel species still essentially belong to the aforementioned five categories of stainless steel, which is only a new development of some steel species in specific steel types. In stainless steel, in addition to elements such as C, Cr, Ni, etc., according to the performance requirements of different uses, Mo, Cu, Si, N, Mn, Nb, Ti, etc. are further alloyed or further reduced in steel. C, Si, Mn, S, P and other elements have also developed many new steel species. For example, Gaochun, high Chromium Molybdenum ferrite stainless steel 00Cr25Ni4 Mo4, 00Cr29Mo4 Ni200Cr30Mo2, and Cr-Ni double-phase stainless steel with high Mo content N to solve the point erosion of chlorides, Gap corrosion, etc.. 0025NI7i Cu3N;
Nitrogen control stainless steel which appears to improve the strength and corrosion resistance of low carbon and ultra-low carbon Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steel; The high Cr, Mo and high nitrogen stainless steel developed to improve the local corrosion resistance of Cr-Niaustenitic stainless steel and to inhibit the separation of metal phases in the steel, such as 00Cr25Ni20 Mo6CuN, 00Cr24 Ni22Mo 7Mn3CuN; High Silicon(Si-6 %) stainless steel developed for smoke resistant nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid(93 % -98 %). In addition, there are some dedicated stainless steel products, such as nuclear levels, nitrate levels, urea levels, food-grade stainless steel, and so on. According to statistics, there are more than 100 brands that have been incorporated into various standards(including factory labels) worldwide, and there are more non-standard brands that have not been marked. In spite of this, the stainless steel brands that are widely produced and widely used in advanced industrial countries are limited to nearly a dozen brands of martensite, ferrite, and austenitic.
With the exception of the former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and China, the world's stainless steel production has reached 11 million tons, while the world's stainless steel production in 1950 was less than 1 million tons, and production has increased by more than 10 times in 40 years. Since 1970, Japan's stainless steel production has surpassed that of the United States, is in a leading position and has continued to grow. In stainless steel production, cr13 martensite steel and Cr17 ferrite steel account for about 30 % -40 %, while 18-8 cr-Niaustenitic steel accounts for about 60 % -70 %. The output of stainless steel in advanced industrial countries in the world generally accounts for 2.5 % to 3.5 % of the total steel in China. In stainless steel production, ultra-high power electric furnaces, furnace outer refining, continuous ingots(including thin slab continuous casting), hot continuous rolling or new type furnace rolling mill, cold continuous rolling, continuous acid washing heat treatment and continuous protection atmosphere bright heat treatment, As well as various quality inspection methods and other new techniques, equipment, new technologies have been adopted more and more widely.
Large-scale, high-speed, continuous, and automation are the main development directions of stainless steel production processes and equipment. The stainless steel that can be produced and supplied in large quantities abroad include cold-rolled thin sheets with a width of 2 M. Including mirror panels, color panels, splint panels, coating panels, etc.. Hot rolled midboard with a width of more than 3M; Hot rolled thick plates with a thickness of 300 mm or more; Seamless tubes up to 1M in diameter and up to 0.1 mm in diameter, and welded tubes of various specifications(up to 2m in diameter); Stainless steel foil with a thickness of about 0.05 mm and a width of up to 1 M. Of the stainless steel produced in the United States, Japan and other countries, cold-rolled thin plates and strip materials account for about 60 %. (About 70 % of the board and strip material); Pipe pipe accounts for about 4 % -5 %(of which welding pipes account for about 60 % of stainless steel pipe production in Japan); Wire accounts for about 8 % -9 %; Sticks and profiles account for about 10 % -11 %.